Put on your face! For many of us, society has imposed often unrealistic views on appearance and beauty. Hello contouring and botox – do they not realize that’s a toxin – botulin that blocks nerve signals that tell your muscles to contact, temporarily paralyzing the facial muscles to smooth your skin TEMPORARILY leaving you without expression?! People who are ok with that should probably stop reading now because the “PSA” below won’t phase you and may even encourage you to consider formaldehyde in your anti-aging routine.
For the rest of you, I am a female! Believe me, I get it! Everyone wants to feel attractive! Every time I take a picture I wish I’d “powered” through a few more 90s myself. That being said, I am not someone who feels the need to wear makeup or do my hair every day. Predominately because of the time required to both apply and remove it. I am not a morning person so getting up an extra half hour early to make sure I had time to apply makeup and do my hair isn’t going to happen. Though I know I should probably wash my face every night, by the time I’m ready to fall asleep at night, I am less that motivated to add steps to my bedtime routine. Would it kill me? No. However, from my 15 year history with makeup, I know that I am less inclined to add steps to my beauty regime. I wash my face every morning, and that has kept me wrinkle, bag, and dark circle free for the past twenty years. If it ain’t broke… right?
That being said, there is something that is broken. Terribly so! The break is between the cosmetic and beauty industry, its regulators, and its customers. (And this isn’t in reference to animal testing which is a horrible, unregulated practice –https://www.crueltyfreeinternational.org/why-we-do-it/arguments-against-animal-testing )
Most people have this lovely idea that they are safe when they purchase cosmetic and beauty products because the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the companies that produce these products. According to their website, the FDA’s main “responsibility is protecting the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation” (http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/WhatWeDo/).
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C) (http://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Legislation/FederalFoodDrugandCosmeticActFDCAct/default.htm) and the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (FPLA) (http://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Legislation/ucm148722.htm) are the laws that give the FDA jurisdiction over cosmetics companies.
Under the FD&C1, cosmetics are defined as “articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body… for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance” (FD&C Act, sec 201(i)). This includes most products you would consider beauty related (minus “soap” http://www.fda.gov/Cosmetics/ProductsIngredients/Products/ucm115449.htm).
The FD&C also deals with safety and labeling of cosmetics. This act prohibits the marketing of: adulterated or misbranded cosmetics.
“’Adulteration’ refers to violations involving product composition – whether they result from ingredients, contaminants, processing, packaging, or shipping & handling.” 1 You can look up the details of what classifies as adulterated at the FDA’s website1 below.
“’Misbranding’ refers to violations involving improperly labeled or deceptively packaged products.”1
You can check out the first source below and read all about it for yourself. The regulations that are in place aren’t the topic of this post. I just want to give you the resources to check my arguments, if you are so motivated. (See Source 3, which challenges some of EWG, source 2)
The MAIN point of this post is what isn’t covered or regulated. The Environmental Working Group is a great organization that’s main goal is to empower people to live healthier lives in a healthier environment. They are non-profit and non-partisan.2 They have a Cosmetics Database called Skin Deep (http://www.ewg.org/skindeep/) where you can search over 63,000 products to see what exactly you’re putting on your skin. Below is a list of SOME of the ingredients in common skin care and make up:
BHA: The National Toxicology Program classifies butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.” It can cause skin depigmentation. In animal studies, BHA produces liver damage and causes stomach cancers such as papillomas and carcinomas and interferes with normal reproductive system development and thyroid hormone levels. The European Union considers it unsafe in fragrance. It is found in food, food packaging, and personal care products sold in the U.S.
Boric acid and Sodium borate: These chemicals disrupt hormones and harm the male reproductive system. Men working in boric acid-producing factories have a greater risk of decreased sperm count and libido. In animals, high doses cause testicular damage to mice, rats, and dogs. Both the European Union and Canada restrict these ingredients in body care products made for children under three years of age and require that products containing these ingredients be labeled as not appropriate for broken or damaged skin. No similar safety standards are in place in the United States. The cosmetic industry’s own safety panel states that these chemicals are unsafe for infant or damaged skin, because they can absorb readily into the body. Despite this guidance, boric acid is found in some diaper creams.
Coal tar hair dyes and other coal tar ingredients (including Aminophenol, Diaminobenzene, Phenylenediamine): Coal tar, a byproduct of coal processing, is a known human carcinogen, according to the National Toxicology Program and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Hair stylists and other professionals are exposed to these chemicals in hair dye almost daily. Europe has banned many of these ingredients in hair dyes. While FDA sanctions coal tar in specialty products such as dandruff and psoriasis shampoos, the long-term safety of these products has not been demonstrated.
Formaldehyde: A potent preservative considered a known human carcinogen by the International Agency on Research on Cancer. Formaldehyde, also an asthmagen, neurotoxicant and developmental toxicant, was once mixed into to many personal care products as antiseptic. This use has declined. But some hair straighteners are based on formaldehyde’s hair-stiffening action and release substantial amounts of the chemical.
Formaldehyde releasers – Bronopol, DMDM hydantoin, Diazolidinyl urea, Imidzaolidinyl urea and Quaternium-15: Cosmetics preservatives that slow form formaldehyde to kill bacteria growing in products. Formaldehyde is a known human carcinogen. The preservatives and the formaldehyde they generate can trigger allergic skin reactions. Formaldehyde releasers are widely used in US products. Not surprisingly, more Americans develop contact allergies to these ingredients than Europeans.
Fragrance: It may help sell products from face cream to laundry detergent, but do you know what’s in it? Fragrances are in everything from shampoo to deodorant to lotion. Federal law doesn’t require companies to list on product labels any of the chemicals in their fragrance mixture. Recent research from EWG and the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics found an average of 14 chemicals in 17 name brand fragrance products, none of them listed on the label. Fragrances can contain hormone disruptors and are among the top 5 allergens in the world. Our advice? Buy fragrance free wherever possible.
Hydroquinone: A skin bleaching chemical that can cause a skin disease called ochronosis, with blue-black lesions that in the worst cases become permanent black caviar-size bumps. In animal studies, hydroquinone has caused tumor development.
Lead: A neurotoxin in popular hair dye Grecian Formula 16 and other black hair dyes for men. Lead from hair dyes travels from hair to doorknobs, cabinets and other household items, where children can ingest it.
Methylisothiazolinone, methylchloroisothiazolinone and benzisothiazolinone: Preservatives, commonly used together in personal care products, among the most common irritants, sensitizers and causes of contact allergy. Lab studies on mammalian brain cells suggest that methylisothiazolinone may be neurotoxic.
Nanoparticles: Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles appear to be among the safer and more effective active ingredients in U.S.-marketed sunscreen creams because they do not penetrate the skin. But avoid sprays and powders containing these nanoparticles, which could penetrate your lungs and enter your bloodstream. Many other nanoparticles have received very little testing, yet they readily penetrate the skin and contaminate the body. Cosmetics manufacturers are not required to disclose the presence of nanoparticles in products.
Oxybenzone: Sunscreen agent and ultraviolet light absorber, found in the bodies of nearly all Americans, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In human epidemiological studies, oxybenzone has been linked to irritation, sensitization and allergies. A study of 404 New York City women in the third trimester of pregnancy associated higher maternal concentration of oxybenzone with a decreased birth weight among newborn baby girls but with greater birth weight in newborn boys. Studies on cells and laboratory animals indicate that oxybenzone and its metabolites may disrupt the hormone system.
Parabens (specifically Propyl-, Isopropyl-, Butyl-, and Isobutyl- parabens): Parabens are estrogen-mimicking preservatives used widely in cosmetics. The CDC has detected parabens in virtually all Americans bodies. According to the European Commission’s Scientific Committee on Consumer Products, longer chain parabens like propyl and butyl paraben and their branched counterparts, isopropyl and isobutylparabens, may disrupt the endocrine system and cause reproductive and developmental disorders.
PEGs/Ceteareth/Polyethylene compounds: A family of conditioning and cleaning agents that go by many names. These synthetic chemicals are frequently contaminated with 1,4-dioxane, which the U.S. government considers a probably human carcinogen and which readily penetrates the skin. Cosmetics makers could easily remove 1,4-dioxane from ingredients, but tests documenting its common presence in products show that they often don’t.
Petroleum distillates: Petroleum-extracted cosmetics ingredients, commonly found in mascara. They may cause contact dermatitis and are often contaminated with cancer-causing impurities. They are produced in oil refineries at the same time as automobile fuel, heating oil and chemical feedstocks.
Phthalates: A growing number of studies indicate that chemical family damages the male reproductive system. Pregnant women should avoid nail polish containing dibutyl phathalate. Everyone should avoid products with “fragrance” indicating a chemical mixture that may contain phthalates.
Resorcinol: Common ingredient in hair color and bleaching products; skin irritant, toxic to the immune system and frequent cause of hair dye allergy. In animal studies, resorcinol can disrupt normal thyroid function. The federal government regulates exposures to resorcinol in the workplace, but its use is not restricted in personal care products.
Toluene: Volatile petrochemical solvent and paint thinner and potent neurotoxicant that acts as an irritant, impairs breathing and causes nausea A pregnant woman’s exposure to toluene vapors during pregnancy may impair fetal development. In human epidemiological and animal studies, toluene has been associated with toxicity to the immune system. Some evidence suggests a link to malignant lymphoma.
Triclosan & Triclocarban: Antimicrobial pesticides in liquid soap (triclosan) or soap bars (triclocarban), very toxic to the aquatic environment. Often found as contaminants in people due to widespread use of antimicrobial cleaning products. Triclosan disrupts thyroid function and reproductive hormones. American Medical Association and the American Academy of Microbiology say that soap and water serves just as well to prevent spread of infections and reduce bacteria on the skin. Overuse may promote the development of bacterial resistance.
Vitamin A compounds (retinyl palmitate, retinyl acetate, retinol): Vitamin A is an essential nutrient but not necessarily safe for use on skin. Studies show that when applied to sun-exposed skin these compounds can increase skin sensitivity. Furthermore sunlight breaks down vitamin A to produce toxic free radicals that can damage DNA and hasten skin lesions and tumors in lab animals. These ingredients are widely used in sunscreens, skin lotions, lip products and makeup. EWG urges consumers to avoid leave on skin and lip products with vitamin A.
Animal-based ingredients: Many consumers are asking manufacturers tough questions about ethical sourcing of their ingredients. Vegetarians, vegans, and people concerned about animal welfare frequently seek to avoid ingredients derived from animals. However a number of animal-based substances are found in cosmetics, and might not be clearly labeled as such. If you are concerned about avoiding animal products the best bet is to choose brands claiming to be vegetarian or vegan or labeled with the PETA and Leaping Bunny logos.
Still not convinced to possibly re-evaluate your skin care? Try Personal Care Truth (http://personalcaretruth.com/). They have a really interesting article on the safety of synthetics and what exactly we mean when we say “safety.” Are we talking about safe for:
(A) the people who make it – transporting in bulk?
(B) the environment – soil, septic tank, waterways?
(C) the end user – on your skin, in your bathroom?
(D) all of the above
(E) none of the above
Here are some highlights:
- Decyl Glucoside is a commonly used natural alternative to Polysorbate 20 in terms of spritzer solubiliser. It is much more irritating to the eyes than the latter, synthetic alternative. However, more importantly it has much higher long-term toxicity to aquatic life than Polysorbate 20. This is probably not what people choosing natural cosmetics want to hear – not as safe on EITHER count. The other commonly used synthetic solubiliser is PEG-40 Hydrogenated Castor oil and that too trumped Decyl Glucoside as a safer alternative.
- Emulsifier wise I was confused that the natural alternative to the Cetearyl alcohol, ceteareth-20 seemed to be much safer given the fact that both are predominantly cetearyl alcohol and that is the biggest contributor to irritation potential. As long as the data I have for cetearyl alcohol is correct I’d bet that both of the above would be on a par in terms of eco and skin safety. Interestingly there was little information available on the olive derived ingredient.
- Surfactant wise while both of those are natural the caprylyl-capryl glucoside being a sugar based non-ionic is often touted as the safest choice. This, along with Decyl Glucoside (a solubiliser and surfactant) are clearly not as safe as we expect them to be based on MSDS sheet analysis.
- Natural preservatives seem to be equally troublesome in terms of their potential to irritate or damage eyes although environmentally all that I looked at were OK. I guess this matters more when you are looking to preserve spray products or eye creams as eye irritation would be less of a concern otherwise.
- Chelating agents are where we get a favoring towards natural as the sodium phytate has better skin compatibility than EDTA although environmentally there is little issue (EDTA biodegradation does require an alkaline soil though). The big difference here is the price with EDTA being well under a third of the price per dose of Sodium Phytate.
- Essential Oils are the last thing I will mention. We can probably imagine that it won’t be nice to put these in our eyes it was interesting to see that things like Lemon Oil are pretty terrible for fish. This matters more for bulk transport than in our cosmetics but I did think it was worth considering as transport these things we must!5Find the full review on this chart: http://personalcaretruth.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/natural-and-synthetic-ingredients.png. Sources2 – http://www.ewg.org/about-us4 – http://personalcaretruth.com/
- 5 – http://personalcaretruth.com/2015/02/synthetics-safer-for-you-safer-for-the-environment/
- 3 – http://chemistscorner.com/why-the-ewg-skin-deep-database-is-still-a-dubious-source/
- 1 – http://www.fda.gov/Cosmetics/GuidanceRegulation/LawsRegulations/ucm074162.htm
- So what do you say we start doing a better job of reviewing what “magic” is in our beauty potions? The more you know….